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Logical  Fallacy: a error in reasoning
  (adj)     (noun)

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Below is the statement as it appears with the fallacy marked as correct. You can see the totals of most frequent responses to this statement. And after reading the any discussion going on below, you can select your choice(s) for the correct answer. For now, whoever posts each statement can update corrections.
Recent terrorist attacks have been carried out by radical Islamic groups. Therefore all terrorists are Muslims.
Fallacy of Composition
Category: Fallacies of Ambiguity

The fallacy of Composition is committed when a conclusion is drawn about a whole based on the features of its constituents when, in fact, no justification provided for the inference. There are actually two types of this fallacy, both of which are known by the same name (because of the high degree of similarity).

The first type of fallacy of Composition arises when a person reasons from the characteristics of individual members of a class or group to a conclusion regarding the characteristics of the entire class or group (taken as a whole). More formally, the "reasoning" would look something like this.

  1. Individual F things have characteristics A, B, C, etc.
  2. Therefore, the (whole) class of F things has characteristics A, B, C, etc.
This line of reasoning is fallacious because the mere fact that individuals have certain characteristics does not, in itself, guarantee that the class (taken as a whole) has those characteristics.

It is important to note that drawing an inference about the characteristics of a class based on the characteristics of its individual members is not always fallacious. In some cases, sufficient justification can be provided to warrant the conclusion. For example, it is true that an individual rich person has more wealth than an individual poor person. In some nations (such as the US) it is true that the class of wealthy people has more wealth as a whole than does the class of poor people. In this case, the evidence used would warrant the inference and the fallacy of Composition would not be committed.

The second type of fallacy of Composition is committed when it is concluded that what is true of the parts of a whole must be true of the whole without there being adequate justification for the claim. More formally, the line of "reasoning" would be as follows:

  1. The parts of the whole X have characteristics A, B, C, etc.
  2. Therefore the whole X must have characteristics A, B, C.
This sort of reasoning is fallacious because it cannot be inferred that simply because the parts of a complex whole have (or lack) certain properties that the whole that they are parts of has those properties. This is especially clear in math: The numbers 1 and 3 are both odd. 1 and 3 are parts of 4. Therefore, the number 4 is odd. It must be noted that reasoning from the properties of the parts to the properties of the whole is not always fallacious. If there is justification for the inference from parts to whole, then the reasoning is not fallacious. For example, if every part of the human body is made of matter, then it would not be an error in reasoning to conclude that the whole human body is made of matter. Similarly, if every part of a structure is made of brick, there is no fallacy committed when one concludes that the whole structure is made of brick.

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 825 Total Answer Attempts   34%
 284 Correctly Popped Fallacies
 541 Incorrectly Un/Popped
posted by wikiworldorder     
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Most Common Responses

 
284 - Fallacy of Composition
93 - Hasty Generalization
71 - Biased Generalization
46 - Guilt by Association
28 - Circumstantial Ad Hominem
24 - Poisoning the Well
18 - Ad Hominem Tu Quoque
18 - Genetic Fallacy
17 - Ad Hominem
15 - Slippery Slope
15 - Relativist Fallacy
15 - Personal Attack
14 - Confusing Cause and Effect
13 - Post Hoc
12 - Red Herring
12 - Begging the Question
11 - Appeal to Fear
11 - Misleading Vividness
11 - Appeal to Belief
10 - Fallacy of Division
10 - Appeal to the Consequences of a Belief
9 - Appeal to Popularity
9 - Burden of Proof
8 - Ignoring a Common Cause
7 - False Dilemma
7 - Appeal to Tradition
7 - Appeal to Common Practice
6 - Appeal to Spite
4 - Appeal to Novelty
4 - Special Pleading
4 - Appeal to Pity
3 - Gambler's Fallacy
3 - Appeal to Emotion
2 - Appeal to Ridicule
2 - Middle Ground
2 - Appeal to Authority

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