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Logical  Fallacy: a error in reasoning
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Statement #172 Discussion

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Below is the statement as it appears with the fallacy marked as correct. You can see the totals of most frequent responses to this statement. And after reading the any discussion going on below, you can select your choice(s) for the correct answer. For now, whoever posts each statement can update corrections.
We had the 60s sexual revolution, and now people are dying of AIDS.
Ignoring a Common Cause
AKA Questionable Cause

Category: Fallacies of Presumption → Casual Fallacies

This fallacy has the following general structure:

  1. A and B are regularly connected (but no third, common cause is looked for).
  2. Therefore A is the cause of B.
This fallacy is committed when it is concluded that one thing causes another simply because they are regularly associated. More formally, this fallacy is committed when it is concluded that A is the cause of B simply because A and B are regularly connected. Further, the causal conclusion is drawn without considering the possibility that a third factor might be the cause of both A and B.

In many cases, the fallacy is quite evident. For example, if a person claimed that a person's sneezing was caused by her watery eyes and he simply ignored the fact that the woman was standing in a hay field, he would have fallen prey to the fallacy of ignoring a common cause. In this case, it would be reasonable to conclude that the woman's sneezing and watering eyes was caused by an allergic reaction of some kind. In other cases, it is not as evident that the fallacy is being committed. For example, a doctor might find a large amount of bacteria in one of her patients and conclude that the bacteria are the cause of the patient's illness. However, it might turn out that the bacteria are actually harmless and that a virus is weakening the person, Thus, the viruses would be the actual cause of the illness and growth of the bacteria (the viruses would weaken the ability of the person's body to resist the growth of the bacteria).

As noted in the discussion of other causal fallacies, causality is a rather difficult matter. However, it is possible to avoid this fallacy by taking due care. In the case of Ignoring a Common Cause, the key to avoiding this fallacy is to be careful to check for other factors that might be the actual cause of both the suspected cause and the suspected effect. If a person fails to check for the possibility of a common cause, then they will commit this fallacy. Thus, it is always a good idea to always ask "could there be a third factor that is actually causing both A and B?"

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 647 Total Answer Attempts   36%
 230 Correctly Popped Fallacies
 417 Incorrectly Un/Popped
posted by wikiworldorder     
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Most Common Responses

 
230 - Ignoring a Common Cause
47 - Hasty Generalization
40 - Post Hoc
32 - Confusing Cause and Effect
25 - Guilt by Association
24 - Slippery Slope
20 - Biased Generalization
20 - Appeal to the Consequences of a Belief
20 - Red Herring
19 - Circumstantial Ad Hominem
18 - False Dilemma
14 - Burden of Proof
14 - Poisoning the Well
13 - Fallacy of Composition
13 - Misleading Vividness
10 - Appeal to Fear
9 - Genetic Fallacy
9 - Appeal to Ridicule
8 - Begging the Question
7 - Relativist Fallacy
7 - Gambler's Fallacy
7 - Appeal to Pity
5 - Appeal to Emotion
5 - Ad Hominem Tu Quoque
5 - Appeal to Tradition
4 - Appeal to Common Practice
3 - Middle Ground
3 - Fallacy of Division
3 - Appeal to Spite
3 - Ad Hominem
2 - Special Pleading
2 - Appeal to Popularity
2 - Appeal to Novelty
1 - Appeal to Belief
1 - Personal Attack
1 - Peer Pressure
1 - Appeal to Flattery

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Ignoring common cause is not...
The correct fallacy is: post hoc /ˌpōst ˈhäk/ adjective occurring or done after the event, especially with reference to the fallacious assumption that the occurrence in question has a logical relationship with the event it follows. "a post hoc justification for the changes" adverb after the event. In statistics, the phrase "correlation does not imply causation" refers to the inability to legitimately deduce a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables solely on the basis of an observed association or correlation between them. [1][2] The complementary idea that "correlation implies causation" is an example of a questionable-cause logical fallacy, in which two events occurring together are taken to have established a cause-and-effect relationship. This fallacy is also known by the Latin phrase cum hoc ergo propter hoc ("with this, therefore because of this"). This differs from the fallacy known as post hoc ergo propter hoc ("after this, therefore because of this"), in which an event following another is seen as a necessary consequence of the former event.

10.2.19 06:08 by StephaneBlouin
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