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Logical  Fallacy: a error in reasoning
  (adj)     (noun)

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Statement #29 Discussion

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Below is the statement as it appears with the fallacy marked as correct. You can see the totals of most frequent responses to this statement. And after reading the any discussion going on below, you can select your choice(s) for the correct answer. For now, whoever posts each statement can update corrections.
...nor stand idly by when our people have been killed. We will be relentless in defense of our citizens and our friends and allies.
Appeal to Fear
Ad Baculum

AKA Scare Tactics, Appeal to Force

Category: Fallacies of Relevance (Red Herrings) → Distracting Appeals

The Appeal to Fear is a fallacy with the following pattern:

  1. Y is presented (a claim that is intended to produce fear).
  2. Therefore claim X is true (a claim that is generally, but need not be, related to Y in some manner).
This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because creating fear in people does not constitute evidence for a claim.

It is important to distinguish between a rational reason to believe (RRB) (evidence) and a prudential reason to believe(PRB) (motivation). A RRB is evidence that objectively and logically supports the claim. A PRB is a reason to accept the belief because of some external factor (such as fear, a threat, or a benefit or harm that may stem from the belief) that is relevant to what a person values but is not relevant to the truth or falsity of the claim. For example, it might be prudent to not fail the son of your department chairperson because you fear he will make life tough for you. However, this does not provide evidence for the claim that the son deserves to pass the class.

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Appeal to Spite
Category: Fallacies of Relevance (Red Herrings) → Distracting Appeals

The Appeal to Spite Fallacy is a fallacy in which spite is substituted for evidence when an "argument" is made against a claim. This line of "reasoning" has the following form:

  1. Claim X is presented with the intent of generating spite.
  2. Therefore claim C is false (or true)
This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because a feeling of spite does not count as evidence for or against a claim. This is quite clear in the following case: "Bill claims that the earth revolves around the sun. But remember that dirty trick he pulled on you last week. Now, doesn't my claim that the sun revolves around the earth make sense to you?"

Of course, there are cases in which a claim that evokes a feeling of spite or malice can serve as legitimate evidence. However, it should be noted that the actual feelings of malice or spite are not evidence. The following is an example of such a situation:

Jill: "I think I'll vote for Jane to be treasurer of NOW."
Vicki: "Remember the time that your purse vanished at a meeting last year?"
Jill: "Yes."
Vicki: "Well, I just found out that she stole your purse and stole some other stuff from people."
Jill: "I'm not voting for her!"

In this case, Jill has a good reason not to vote for Jane. Since a treasurer should be honest, a known thief would be a bad choice. As long as Jill concludes that she should vote against Jane because she is a thief and not just out of spite, her reasoning would not be fallacious.

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Two Wrongs Make a Right

Two Wrongs Make a Right is a fallacy in which a person "justifies" an action against a person by asserting that the person would do the same thing to him/her, when the action is not necessary to prevent B from doing X to A. This fallacy has the following pattern of "reasoning":

  1. It is claimed that person B would do X to person A.
  2. It is acceptable for person A to do X to person B (when A's doing X to B is not necessary to prevent B from doing X to A).
This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because an action that is wrong is wrong even if another person would also do it.

It should be noted that it can be the case that it is not wrong for A to do X to B if X is done to prevent B from doing X to A or if X is done in justified retribution. For example, if Sally is running in the park and Biff tries to attack her, Sally would be justified in attacking Biff to defend herself. As another example, if country A is planning to invade country B in order to enslave the people, then country B would be justified in launching a preemptive strike to prevent the invasion.

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 803 Total Answer Attempts   82%
 661 Correctly Popped Fallacies
 142 Incorrectly Un/Popped
posted by wikiworldorder     url: youtube/m2TI...

Most Common Responses

 
290 - Appeal to Fear
232 - Two Wrongs Make a Right
139 - Appeal to Spite
19 - Appeal to Emotion
9 - False Dilemma
8 - Appeal to Novelty
7 - Appeal to Pity
6 - Appeal to Popularity
6 - Appeal to Belief
6 - Special Pleading
5 - Appeal to Flattery
5 - Appeal to Authority
5 - Appeal to the Consequences of a Belief
5 - Fallacy of Division
5 - Appeal to Tradition
5 - Red Herring
4 - Hasty Generalization
4 - Burden of Proof
4 - Peer Pressure
4 - Appeal to Ridicule
3 - Guilt by Association
3 - Gambler's Fallacy
3 - Confusing Cause and Effect
3 - Biased Generalization
3 - Slippery Slope
2 - Ignoring a Common Cause
2 - Post Hoc
2 - Fallacy of Composition
2 - Poisoning the Well
2 - Appeal to Common Practice
2 - Misleading Vividness
2 - Personal Attack
2 - Ad Hominem Tu Quoque
1 - Begging the Question
1 - Genetic Fallacy
1 - Middle Ground
1 - Relativist Fallacy

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